All that scientists have are theories in explaining the ancient universe. This is seen as a given to the vast majority of scientists, but not all modern secular (“big bang”) theorists have cosmologies that agree. Science is in the business of making arbitrary assumptions (theories) without having conclusive scientific evidence. One such belief is that the universe has no boundaries—no edge and no center. In this assumed universe, every galaxy would be surrounded by galaxies spread evenly in all directions (on a large enough scale), and therefore, all the net gravitational forces cancel out.
But if the universe and matter are infinite and if the universe has boundaries, then there must necessarily be a net gravitational effect toward the center. One example would be that clocks at the edge of this outward boundary of the universe, would be running at different rates to clocks on the earth and those places toward the center. The North Star, which is a fixed (to us), unmoving point of reference (i.e., for sailors, expeditions, etc.) may be, for all we know, just beyond the boundary of the universe. If it is, the time at this outward boundary will differ from the time at the center, for time may be flying, exponentially, at the boundary, while in the center, much slower (relatively speaking).
It appears that the further the galaxies are from us, the faster they are moving away. An analogy would be when you hear a train whistle…as it passes, it’s frequency changes. The sound goes down in pitch, getting stretched out…stretching further and further as it travels away. We are not hearing the original sound that we heard when it was right in front of us. When it finally becomes very faint, it takes a few seconds for us to even hear it. What we hear at that moment, is seconds behind the original blast.
There appears to be observational evidence that the universe has expanded in the past, supported by the many phrases God uses in the Bible to tell us that at creation he “stretched out”. [1.] (other verses say “spread out”) the heavens. If the universe is not much bigger than we can observe, and if it was only 50 times smaller in the past than it is now, then scientific deduction based on gravitational relative to the center, means it had to have expanded out of a previous state in which it was surrounded by an event horizon (a condition known technically as a “white hole”—a black hole running in reverse, something permitted by the equations of equilibrium. [2.]
As matter passed out of this event horizon, the horizon itself had to shrink—eventually to nothing. Therefore, at one point this earth (relative to a point far away from it) would have been virtually frozen in time. An observer on earth would not in any way “feel different.” “Billions of years” would be available (in the frame of reference within which it is traveling in deep space) for light to reach the earth, for stars to age, etc.—while less than one ordinary day is passing on earth. This massive gravitational time dilation would seem to be a scientific inevitability if a bounded universe expanded significantly.
In one sense, if observers on earth at that particular time could have looked out and “seen” the speed with which light was moving toward them out in space, it would have appeared as if it were traveling many times faster than a constant c. Galaxies would also appear to be rotating faster. However, if an observer in deep space was out there measuring the speed of light, to him it would still only be traveling at c. If the galaxy is spreading out (and it is), the outer parts would be moving out faster than the center part. A considerable amount of time on the outward fringes would be less than a nanosecond, not even a moment, toward the center. Job 38:7 seems to indicate that Creation was instantaneous, saying that “the morning stars [angels] sang together, and all the sons of God [angels] shouted for joy.” Now if God used evolution over eons of time, then the angels had one looooonnnnnggg shout I’d say.
This cosmology is based upon mathematics and physics which are totally accepted by cosmologists (general relativity), and it accepts (along with virtually all physicists) that there has been expansion in the past (though not from some imaginary tiny point). So the arbitrary starting point which the big bangers use is the unbounded cosmos idea which states the universe has no end. What the experts don't tell you about the ‘big bang’ is that it violates the 2nd and 3rd Laws of Thermodynamics (among others), and E=mc2, which demands a cause for every effect. Energy is getting used up as time goes by. But does time really exist without matter?
Part of the way in which the universe is dated is by the speed of light and the distant star light’s time to reach the earth. The distance that the light has to travel to earth is used to configure the years. Scientists, astronomers, etc., claim that since the stars are so many light years away, it had to take billions of years for the light to reach and be observed on earth. However, if the universe was created, would God not create the heavens without light already being visible from the earth? He said let there be light and bam! It was! Immediately one conceives. Reading Genesis, among others in the Old Testament, it is obvious that star light was already being seen on the earth. Thus, it would be logical to assume that the light was created at the same time as the universe…in full maturity! That is having already been being viewed by humans. Why would God create the universe, and then wait billions of years for the light to reach the earth?
He spoke and it existed! Instant fiat! The universe’s effect must have had a cause. This would explain it. Other scientific theories can not explain what caused matter to come from nothingness. These theories come with no conclusive proof. String Theory, Steady-State Theory, Big Bang Theory, etc. do not explain the cause of the effect (material universe). And when God created the heavens and the earth, it is clear that He created them in an already mature state. Just like Adam and Eve where created as adults. They were old enough to marry and bear children and old enough to “keep the garden“(Gen. 2:15). They didn’t have to wait for a harvest either since there was already fruit on the trees (Gen. 2:16).
By all readings, the creation was obviously already fully mature, animals included. Mountains, valleys, oceans, already in maturity. Adam named all the animals. He didn’t name baby calves, but Cattle, nor chick lings, but already flying fowl (Gen. 2:19-20).
This new cosmology seems to explain the observations that are used to support the “big bang,” like the progressive red-shift and the cosmic microwave background radiation, without compromising the data or the biblical record of a young earth. This new cosmology is not the creationist’s alternative to the “big bang” theory. It simply recognizes that the Theory of General Relativity does not permit time to exist without matter and that a fully mature creation was in the beginning. It acknowledges the fact that the speed of light has not remained constant over the last 150 years. And carbon-14 dating methods are made for once-living organic matter, not stone-dead rocks, asteroids, meteorites, or moon dust. Theories have been proven wrong before.
My oldest son had why-itis. Why is the sun yellow, why doesn’t it burn up, why did this happen, why does that happen….? Also as a child, neither was I content with a theoretical explanation that lacked conclusive proof. I was always digging, not satisfied with the status quo. Does one need to apologize when challenging textbook science, asking for conclusive evidence about scientific suppositions, and questioning conventional acceptance of theoretical suppositions? Thomas Edison is right. He said that “we don’t know one one-thousandth of one percent of all there is to know“. Finite carbon units (humans) ought to be humbled by just how much infinite knowledge there appears to be an infinite universe. Expanding the mind, questioning contemporary thought and asking a lot of questions. It’s okay. That is actually the part of science where the most progression is made.
1. Gensis 1:1; Ecclesiastes 3:11; Isaiah 26:4; Romans 1:20; 1 Timothy 1:17; and Hebrews 11:3, Isaiah 42:5; Jeremiah 10:12; Zechariah 12:1.
2. D. Russel Humphreys, Starlight and Time (Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 1994). An on-line archive of the debate surrounding Dr. Humphreys' starlight research can be found off-site at: http://www.trueorigin.org/ca_rh_03.htm